性教育教學資源網 http://http://sexedu.moe.edu.tw zh-tw 破除HIV傳染途徑的七大迷思 <div align="center"> <table class="MsoNormalTable" border="0" cellspacing="4" cellpadding="0" width="96%" style="width:96.0%;mso-cellspacing:3.0pt;mso-yfti-tbllook:1184;mso-padding-alt: 0cm 0cm 0cm 0cm"> <tbody> <tr> <td style="padding:0cm 0cm 0cm 0cm"> <p class="MsoNormal" align="right" style="text-align:right;mso-line-height-alt: 11.25pt;mso-pagination:widow-orphan"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;">2013/05/10<o:p></o:p></span></p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td style="padding:0cm 0cm 0cm 0cm"> <p class="MsoNormal" style="line-height:17.85pt;mso-pagination:widow-orphan"><span style="font-family: 標楷體;">【文/羅一鈞(現任疾病管制局防疫醫師、台大醫院內科兼任主治醫師)提供】</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="mso-margin-top-alt:auto;mso-margin-bottom-alt:auto; line-height:17.85pt;mso-pagination:widow-orphan"><b><span style="font-family: 標楷體;">雖然科學家針對</span></b><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;">HIV</span></b><b><span style="font-family: 標楷體;">已經研究相當多,已經很清楚瞭解</span></b><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;">HIV</span></b><b><span style="font-family: 標楷體;">是如何傳染的,不幸仍然有許多錯誤的資訊、不符合科學發現的陳述,在網際網路或大眾媒體流傳。因此,美國疾病管制局特別準備這份資料,以澄清對於</span></b><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;">HIV</span></b><b><span style="font-family: 標楷體;">的一些迷思。</span></b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="line-height:16.0pt;mso-line-height-rule:exactly; mso-pagination:widow-orphan"><b><span style="font-family: 標楷體;">怎樣才會傳染到</span></b><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;">HIV</span></b><b><span style="font-family: 標楷體;">?</span></b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="line-height:16.0pt;mso-line-height-rule:exactly; mso-pagination:widow-orphan"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;">HIV</span><span style="font-family: 標楷體;">會經由性行為、共用針具、輸血、垂直感染、哺乳等途徑,從感染者傳染給其他人。</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="line-height:16.0pt;mso-line-height-rule:exactly; mso-pagination:widow-orphan"><span style="font-family: 標楷體;">在醫療單位,曾發生過員工因為被含有</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;">HIV</span><span style="font-family: 標楷體;">感染者血液的針具扎傷、或被其血液直接接觸傷口或黏膜,而傳染到</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;">HIV</span><span style="font-family: 標楷體;">的事件。理論上醫療同仁如果自己是</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;">HIV</span><span style="font-family: 標楷體;">感染者,可能在照顧過程中傳染給病患。在美國僅發生過一個這樣的案例,一位本身有</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;">HIV</span><span style="font-family: 標楷體;">感染的牙醫師,在進行牙科治療過程將</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;">HIV</span><span style="font-family: 標楷體;">傳染給</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;">6</span><span style="font-family: 標楷體;">個病患。美國曾針對</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;">36</span><span style="font-family: 標楷體;">位本身是</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;">HIV</span><span style="font-family: 標楷體;">感染者的醫師或牙醫師,調查他們照顧過的</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;">22000</span><span style="font-family: 標楷體;">位病患,並沒有發現其他因醫療照顧被醫師或牙醫師傳染</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;">HIV</span><span style="font-family: 標楷體;">的案例。</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="line-height:16.0pt;mso-line-height-rule:exactly; mso-pagination:widow-orphan"><span style="font-family: 標楷體;">有人擔心</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;">HIV</span><span style="font-family: 標楷體;">會透過其他途徑傳染,但是沒有任何科學證據可以支持這些猜測。如果</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;">HIV</span><span style="font-family: 標楷體;">有其他傳染途徑,例如空氣、水、或是昆蟲,</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;">HIV</span><span style="font-family: 標楷體;">的流行狀況應該會跟我們觀察到的現況完全不同。比方說,如果蚊子可以傳染</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;">HIV</span><span style="font-family: 標楷體;">,應該會有極多的幼兒、學齡兒童遭受</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;">HIV</span><span style="font-family: 標楷體;">感染,但是實際上並非如此。任何</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;">HIV</span><span style="font-family: 標楷體;">通報個案都會由地方衛生單位瞭解評估其傳染途徑,至今並未發現</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;">HIV</span><span style="font-family: 標楷體;">有任何其他的傳染途徑存在。</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="line-height:16.0pt;mso-line-height-rule:exactly; mso-pagination:widow-orphan"><span style="font-family: 標楷體;">以下是特別針對一些誤解、迷思,所做的澄清與討論:</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="line-height:16.0pt;mso-line-height-rule:exactly; mso-pagination:widow-orphan"><b><span style="font-family: 標楷體;">迷思一:環境當中容易感染</span></b><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;">HIV</span></b><b><span style="font-family: 標楷體;">?</span></b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="line-height:16.0pt;mso-line-height-rule:exactly; mso-pagination:widow-orphan"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;">HIV</span><span style="font-family: 標楷體;">在環境當中不易存活,因此要藉由環境傳染是極不可能的。在血液、精液、陰道分泌物、母乳、唾液、眼淚當中,可以發現</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;">HIV</span><span style="font-family: 標楷體;">,但是濃度高低差異很多。為了檢驗在環境中的存活,科學家選用高濃度的病毒來做環境實驗,發現在嚴格的實驗室控制條件下,</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;">HIV</span><span style="font-family: 標楷體;">可以在環境中存活數天到數週,但是如果在乾掉的體液、數小時內,</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;">90-99%</span><span style="font-family: 標楷體;">的</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;">HIV</span><span style="font-family: 標楷體;">(就算是高濃度)就無法存活。由於自然狀況下血液或其他體液當中</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;">HIV</span><span style="font-family: 標楷體;">的濃度,遠遠低於實驗室選用的『高濃度』,因此,只要血液或體液已經乾掉,</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;">HIV</span><span style="font-family: 標楷體;">要藉由環境傳染的機率,基本上就等於零。</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="line-height:16.0pt;mso-line-height-rule:exactly; mso-pagination:widow-orphan"><span style="font-family: 標楷體;">有人對前述這些實驗結果做出錯誤的解讀和結論,引起讀者不必要的恐慌。這些實驗的結果不能套用在評估個人感染</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;">HIV</span><span style="font-family: 標楷體;">的風險,因為:</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="line-height:16.0pt;mso-line-height-rule:exactly; mso-pagination:widow-orphan"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;">1. </span><span style="font-family: 標楷體;">實驗室使用的病毒濃度,遠超過在自然狀況下,</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;">HIV</span><span style="font-family: 標楷體;">感染者血液或體液當中</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;">HIV</span><span style="font-family: 標楷體;">的濃度。</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><br /> 2. </span><span style="font-family: 標楷體;">從來沒有任何人,被證實是因為接觸帶有</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;">HIV</span><span style="font-family: 標楷體;">的環境表面,遭受</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;">HIV</span><span style="font-family: 標楷體;">傳染。</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><br /> 3. HIV</span><span style="font-family: 標楷體;">脫離人類活體之後,就不能進行複製(除非在實驗室內進行培養條件下),因此,也就無法進一步擴散、傳染出去。</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="line-height:16.0pt;mso-line-height-rule:exactly; mso-pagination:widow-orphan"><b><span style="font-family: 標楷體;">迷思二:家庭接觸易感染</span></b><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;">HIV</span></b><b><span style="font-family: 標楷體;">?</span></b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="line-height:16.0pt;mso-line-height-rule:exactly; mso-pagination:widow-orphan"><span style="font-family: 標楷體;">因家庭接觸而傳染</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;">HIV</span><span style="font-family: 標楷體;">的案例相當罕見。曾發生過的案例,被認為是因為家庭成員的皮膚或黏膜傷口,接觸到家人帶有</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;">HIV</span><span style="font-family: 標楷體;">的血液所致。為了避免這些特殊狀況,在與</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;">HIV</span><span style="font-family: 標楷體;">感染者或</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;">HIV</span><span style="font-family: 標楷體;">感染狀況不明的家人相處時,家人應該要注意自我防範。防範措施如下:</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="line-height:16.0pt;mso-line-height-rule:exactly; mso-pagination:widow-orphan"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;">1. </span><span style="font-family: 標楷體;">接觸血液或其他可能帶有血液的體液(例如尿液、糞便、嘔吐物)時,應該要戴手套;</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><br /> 2. </span><span style="font-family: 標楷體;">不論是家庭照顧者或</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;">HIV</span><span style="font-family: 標楷體;">患者,雙方的皮膚有傷口或皮膚有破裂時,都應該要用紗布或繃帶覆蓋好;</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><br /> 3. </span><span style="font-family: 標楷體;">接觸血液或其他體液後,應該立即洗手,及清洗其他有接觸的身體部位。發現環境表面有血液沾污時,應該立刻清潔消毒;</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><br /> 4. </span><span style="font-family: 標楷體;">不要共用刮鬍刀、牙刷;</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><br /> 5. </span><span style="font-family: 標楷體;">針具和其他銳利工具,應該僅在必要醫療照顧時,才在家中使用,並且要注意使用的安全守則。例如不要用手拿針筒蓋去回套針頭,針具應丟棄在不會被刺穿的容器內。</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="line-height:16.0pt;mso-line-height-rule:exactly; mso-pagination:widow-orphan"><b><span style="font-family: 標楷體;">迷思三:服務業潛藏感染</span></b><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;">HIV</span></b><b><span style="font-family: 標楷體;">危機?</span></b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="line-height:16.0pt;mso-line-height-rule:exactly; mso-pagination:widow-orphan"><span style="font-family: 標楷體;">針對同事、客戶、消費者在職場當中的接觸,並不會造成</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;">HIV</span><span style="font-family: 標楷體;">傳染。</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;">HIV</span><span style="font-family: 標楷體;">感染的食品工作者只要沒有合併其他感染(例如腹瀉、</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;">A</span><span style="font-family: 標楷體;">型肝炎),就不必限制工作內容。</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="line-height:16.0pt;mso-line-height-rule:exactly; mso-pagination:widow-orphan"><span style="font-family: 標楷體;">與人體接觸有關的服務業,例如理髮、美容、按摩業,並未發生過因服務內容而傳染</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;">HIV</span><span style="font-family: 標楷體;">的情形,遵守常規注意事項即可,例如刺青、針灸、穿耳洞的工具,不應重複使用,而且應妥善丟棄或完整清潔消毒。可能帶有血液的器具,例如刮鬍刀,應該只能使用於單一顧客,並且在每次使用後,妥善丟棄或完整清潔消毒。</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="line-height:16.0pt;mso-line-height-rule:exactly; mso-pagination:widow-orphan"><span style="font-family: 標楷體;">至今並未報告過因刺青、穿洞(耳洞、鼻洞等)傳染</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;">HIV</span><span style="font-family: 標楷體;">的案例,但是這些行為已有造成</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;">B</span><span style="font-family: 標楷體;">型肝炎傳染的案例發生。因針灸傳染</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;">HIV</span><span style="font-family: 標楷體;">,則曾有一個案例報告。理論上這些行為會造成帶血傷口,萬一接觸帶有</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;">HIV</span><span style="font-family: 標楷體;">的血液和體液,可能傳染到</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;">HIV</span><span style="font-family: 標楷體;">。另外,如果器具重複使用又未清潔消毒完整,也可能造成顧客之間的傳染。</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="line-height:16.0pt;mso-line-height-rule:exactly; mso-pagination:widow-orphan"><b><span style="font-family: 標楷體;">迷思四:親吻會傳染</span></b><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;">HIV</span></b><b><span style="font-family: 標楷體;">?</span></b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="line-height:16.0pt;mso-line-height-rule:exactly; mso-pagination:widow-orphan"><span style="font-family: 標楷體;">閉口親吻,或社交親吻,不會傳染</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;">HIV</span><span style="font-family: 標楷體;">。開口親吻,或法式親吻,因為有可能接觸到血液,美國疾管局不建議和</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;">HIV</span><span style="font-family: 標楷體;">感染者發生開口親吻或法式親吻。但是,即使開口親吻,傳染到</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;">HIV</span><span style="font-family: 標楷體;">的機率是非常低的,美國疾管局至今僅發現過一個案例,是『可能』由於開口親吻接觸到血液,導致傳染</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;">HIV</span><span style="font-family: 標楷體;">。</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="line-height:16.0pt;mso-line-height-rule:exactly; mso-pagination:widow-orphan"><b><span style="font-family: 標楷體;">迷思五:咬傷也會傳染</span></b><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;">HIV</span></b><b><span style="font-family: 標楷體;">?</span></b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="line-height:16.0pt;mso-line-height-rule:exactly; mso-pagination:widow-orphan"><span style="font-family: 標楷體;">美國疾管局在</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;">1997</span><span style="font-family: 標楷體;">年曾報告一個被人咬傷而傳染到</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;">HIV</span><span style="font-family: 標楷體;">的案例。醫學文獻中也曾經有因咬傷、嚴重創傷有血液接觸,而傳染</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;">HIV</span><span style="font-family: 標楷體;">的其他報告。要提醒的是,咬傷絕非</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;">HIV</span><span style="font-family: 標楷體;">的常見傳染途徑。</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="line-height:16.0pt;mso-line-height-rule:exactly; mso-pagination:widow-orphan"><b><span style="font-family: 標楷體;">迷思六:愛滋發病者的唾液、眼淚、汗水會傳染?</span></b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="line-height:16.0pt;mso-line-height-rule:exactly; mso-pagination:widow-orphan"><span style="font-family: 標楷體;">在一些愛滋發病者的唾液、眼淚當中,可以存在很少量的</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;">HIV</span><span style="font-family: 標楷體;">,但是有少量的</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;">HIV</span><span style="font-family: 標楷體;">並不表示唾液或眼淚可以傳染</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;">HIV</span><span style="font-family: 標楷體;">。至於汗水,則從未發現過有</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;">HIV</span><span style="font-family: 標楷體;">存在。至今從未有報告過透過唾液、眼淚或汗水接觸,而傳染</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;">HIV</span><span style="font-family: 標楷體;">的案例。</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="line-height:16.0pt;mso-line-height-rule:exactly; mso-pagination:widow-orphan"><b><span style="font-family: 標楷體;">迷思七:昆蟲叮咬也會傳染</span></b><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;">HIV</span></b><b><span style="font-family: 標楷體;">?</span></b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="line-height:16.0pt;mso-line-height-rule:exactly; mso-pagination:widow-orphan"><span style="font-family: 標楷體;">昆蟲叮咬不會傳染</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;">HIV</span><span style="font-family: 標楷體;">。科學實驗和觀察發現,昆蟲叮咬人體時,不會把昆蟲本身血液或過去吸入的人血,注入正在叮咬的人體。事實上,昆蟲只會注入自己的唾液,作為潤滑劑,或用來對抗人體血液凝固。因此,像是瘧疾、黃熱病、登革熱,都是藉由蚊子的唾液傳染。</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;">HIV</span><span style="font-family: 標楷體;">只能在昆蟲體內停留很短的時間,無法在昆蟲體內存活、繁殖,也不會感染昆蟲本身,所以無法透過昆蟲傳染給叮咬的人體。</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="line-height:16.0pt;mso-line-height-rule:exactly; mso-pagination:widow-orphan"><span style="font-family: 標楷體;">有人擔心昆蟲吸血口器可能帶有</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;">HIV</span><span style="font-family: 標楷體;">感染的殘餘血液,因此傳染給下一個叮咬的人體。這是不可能的,理由包括:昆蟲口器表面無法殘留大量血液,而昆蟲在吸血後會休息消化血液,不會在吸血後立即飛到下一個人體去叮咬,所以,無須擔心會透過昆蟲叮咬傳染</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;">HIV</span><span style="font-family: 標楷體;">。</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="line-height:16.0pt;mso-line-height-rule:exactly; mso-pagination:widow-orphan"><span style="font-family: 標楷體;">(<b>以上資料來源:</b>整理自</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><a href="http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/resources/factsheets/transmission.htm" target="_blank"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:標楷體;mso-ascii-font-family: " times="" new="">美國疾病管制局官網</span></b></a></span><span style="font-family: 標楷體;">。)</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><o:p></o:p></span></p> <div class="MsoNormal" align="center" style="text-align:center;line-height:16.0pt; mso-line-height-rule:exactly;mso-pagination:widow-orphan"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"> <hr size="2" width="100%" align="center" /> </span></div> <p class="MsoNormal" style="line-height:16.0pt;mso-line-height-rule:exactly; mso-pagination:widow-orphan"><b><span style="font-family: 標楷體;">補充:口交會傳染</span></b><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;">HIV</span></b><b><span style="font-family: 標楷體;">嗎?</span></b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="line-height:16.0pt;mso-line-height-rule:exactly; mso-pagination:widow-orphan"><span style="font-family: 標楷體;">會。如果口交的任一方有</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;">HIV</span><span style="font-family: 標楷體;">感染,就可能傳染</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;">HIV</span><span style="font-family: 標楷體;">給對方。事實上已經有不少因為口交傳染</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;">HIV</span><span style="font-family: 標楷體;">的案例報告。雖然科學家並不確定,究竟口交傳染</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;">HIV</span><span style="font-family: 標楷體;">的機率是多少,至少研究顯示這樣的風險低於不安全的肛交或陰道交。</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="line-height:16.0pt;mso-line-height-rule:exactly; mso-pagination:widow-orphan"><span style="font-family: 標楷體;">如果『進行口交』的一方有</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;">HIV</span><span style="font-family: 標楷體;">,口腔的</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;">HIV</span><span style="font-family: 標楷體;">可能會經由對方下列的部位進入對方體內:</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="line-height:16.0pt;mso-line-height-rule:exactly; mso-pagination:widow-orphan"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;">1. </span><span style="font-family: 標楷體;">陰莖前端的尿道黏膜</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><br /> 2. </span><span style="font-family: 標楷體;">陰道或子宮頸的黏膜</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><br /> 3. </span><span style="font-family: 標楷體;">肛門黏膜</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><br /> 4. </span><span style="font-family: 標楷體;">性接觸部位的皮膚破皮或傷口。</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="line-height:16.0pt;mso-line-height-rule:exactly; mso-pagination:widow-orphan"><span style="font-family: 標楷體;">如果『接受口交』的一方有</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;">HIV</span><span style="font-family: 標楷體;">,這一方的血液、精液、前列腺分泌物或陰道分泌物當中的</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;">HIV</span><span style="font-family: 標楷體;">,可能會經由對方口腔黏膜進入對方體內。</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="line-height:16.0pt;mso-line-height-rule:exactly; mso-pagination:widow-orphan"><span style="font-family: 標楷體;">以下的狀況會增加口交傳染</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;">HIV</span><span style="font-family: 標楷體;">的機率:</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="line-height:16.0pt;mso-line-height-rule:exactly; mso-pagination:widow-orphan"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;">1. </span><span style="font-family: 標楷體;">『進行口交』的一方,在口腔、喉嚨或嘴唇周圍有破皮或傷口;</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><br /> 2. </span><span style="font-family: 標楷體;">『接受口交』的一方,在對方的口腔中射精;</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><br /> 3. </span><span style="font-family: 標楷體;">『接受口交』的一方,有其他性病(例如梅毒、菜花等)</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="line-height:16.0pt;mso-line-height-rule:exactly; mso-pagination:widow-orphan"><span style="font-family: 標楷體;">如何避免口交傳染</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;">HIV</span><span style="font-family: 標楷體;">?不要發生性行為,也就是『禁欲』,最有效的方法。否則請使用保險套於陰莖。針對陰道或肛門,請使用乳膠隔絕物(</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;">Latex barrier</span><span style="font-family: 標楷體;">),阻隔口腔和陰道或肛門的直接接觸,用於覆蓋食物的塑膠保鮮膜,也是可以使用的口交隔絕物。</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="line-height:16.0pt;mso-line-height-rule:exactly; mso-pagination:widow-orphan"><span style="font-family: 標楷體;">如果與伴侶共用性玩具(</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;">sex toy</span><span style="font-family: 標楷體;">),例如人造陰莖或按摩棒,雙方都應使用新的保險套,不可共用保險套,並且應在各自使用後,將性玩具完整清潔消毒。</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="line-height:16.0pt;mso-line-height-rule:exactly; mso-pagination:widow-orphan"><span style="font-family: 標楷體;">(以上譯自</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><a href="http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/resources/qa/transmission.htm" target="_blank"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:標楷體;mso-ascii-font-family: " times="" new="">美國疾管局網站</span></b></a></span><span style="font-family: 標楷體;">)</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><o:p></o:p></span></p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> http://http://sexedu.moe.edu.tw/news_detail.asp?sn=1354